Hier erhalten Sie eine Übersicht über relevante Studien in deutscher und englischer Sprache zum Thema "Schreiben mit der Hand" und dessen vielfältige Bedeutung für die persönliche und soziale Entwicklung des Menschen.

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Journal of Educational Psychology

Margaret H. Thomas

The positive effects of writing practice on integration of foreign words in memory


The effect of copying foreign language vocabulary words and/or pronouncing them aloud while attempting to learn their English counterparts was investigated. In Experiment 1, writing practice enhanced written recall of the foreign words in response to their English equivalents. Recall of the foreign words in the oral modality was not influenced by these variables. In Experiment 2, when recall of English words was measured, neither variable was found to have a significant effect. In Experiment 3, written free recall of foreign language words was found to be enhanced by writing practice, whereas associative recall, as measured by a matching test, was not reliably influenced by this variable. The overall pattern of results is interpreted as supporting the view that copying foreign language words assists in the formation of memory codes for their written forms.

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PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Li Hai Tan

Reading depends on writing, in Chinese


Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters.

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Frankfurter Rundschau

Torsten Harmsen

Junge Chinesen verlernen das Lesen


Studien zeigen, dass bei der Aneignung der Schrift Hand und Hirn eng zusammenarbeiten. Digitale Hilfen können das Lernen behindern, was derzeit etwa in China zu Problemen führt.

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Learning Disability Quarterly

Virginia Berninger

Comparison of Pen and Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with and without Learning Disabilities


Results for that sample, which also included typically developing second and sixth graders, showed that effects of transcription mode vary with level of language and within level of language by grade level for letters and sentences. However, consistently from second to fourth to sixth grade, children wrote longer essays with faster word production rate by pen than by keyboard. In addition, fourth and sixth graders wrote more complete sentences when writing by pen than by keyboard, and this relative advantage for sentence composing in text was not affected by spelling ability.

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Wissenschaft Aktuell

Mit der Hand schreiben - ein wichtiger kreativer Prozess

Doris Marszk


Das Schreiben mit der Hand setzt andere Denkprozesse frei als das Schreiben mit einer Tastatur. Man solle das Schreiben mit Computer nicht verteufeln, sagen amerikanische Forscher, aber man dürfe auch das Schreiben mit der Hand in der Schule nicht vernachlässigen.

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Advances in Haptics

Anne Mangen

Digitizing Literacy: Reflections on the Haptics of Writing


Writing is a complex cognitive process relying on intricate perceptual-sensorimotor combinations. The process and skill of writing is studied on several levels and in many disciplines, from neurophysiological research on the shaping of each letter to studies on stylistic and compositional features of authors and poets. In studies of writing and literacy overall, the role of the physically tangible writing device (pen on paper; computer mouse and keyboard; digital stylus pen and writing tablet; etc.) is rarely addressed.

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University of Stanvanger

Trond Egil Toft

Better learning through handwriting


Associate professor Anne Mangen at the University of Stavanger’s Reading Centre asks if something is lost in switching from book to computer screen, and from pen to keyboard.
The process of reading and writing involves a number of senses, she explains. When writing by hand, our brain receives feedback from our motor actions, together with the sensation of touching a pencil and paper. These kinds of feedback is significantly different from those we receive when touching and typing on a keyboard.

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Journal Of Motor Behavior

Sandra Sülzenbrück

The Death of Handwriting: Secondary Effects of Frequent Computer Use on Basic Motor Skills


The benefits of modern technologies such as personal computers, in-vehicle navigation systems, and electronic organizers are evident in everyday life. However, only recently has it been proposed that the increasing use of personal computers in producing written texts may significantly contribute to the loss of handwriting skills. Such a fundamental change of human habits is likely to have generalized consequences for other basic fine motor skills as well. In this article, the authors provide evidence that the skill to produce precisely controlled arm–hand movements is related to the usage of computer keyboards in producing written text in everyday life. This result supports the notion that specific cultural skills such as handwriting and typing shape more general perceptual and motor skills. More generally, changing technologies are associated with generalized changes of the profile of basic human skills.

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Universität Giessen

Eike Thürmann

Lernen durch Schreiben? Thesen zur Unterstützung sprachlicher Risikogruppen im Sachfachunterricht

Januar 2012

Ausgehend von der Frage, wie sich die Leistungsfähigkeit von sog. Risikoschülern verbessern lässt, wird angesichts der aktuellen curricularen Kompetenzorientierung die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von sprachlichen und kognitiven Leistungen erörtert. Dabei werden Lernbedarfe von solchen Schülern in Regelklassen thematisiert, die zwar über basale alltagskommunikative Kompetenzen verfügen, die jedoch die für schulisches Lernen spezifischen sprachlichen Fähigkeiten erst noch erwerben müssen. Es werden Hinweise darauf erörtert, wie das leistungsrelevante schulische Register über Scaffolding und reflektierte Schriftlichkeit bzw. den Umgang mit schulrelevanten Textsorten/Genres eher erworben werden kann als durch bisher den Schulalltag dominierende mündliche Unterrichtsformen.

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Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e.V.

Anke Grotelüschen, Wibke Riekmann (Hrsg.)

Funktionaler Analphabetismus in Deutschland


7,5 Millionen Deutsch sprechende Erwachsene können nur so eingeschränkt lesen und schreiben, dass sie von voller selbstständiger gesellschaftlicher Teilhabe ausgeschlossen sind, bzw. häufig auf Unterstützung angewiesen sind.

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Death of Handwriting


Research commissioned from print and post specialist Docmail has revealed the average person hasn’t written by hand for 41 days. The full extent to which technology has taken over our lives was shown in a study of 2,000 Brits - one in three hasn’t had cause to hand write anything properly for over six months. Gone are the days of handwritten phone-books, writing reminders or noting something on the calendar – the study revealed all of these are now more likely to be done without using a pen. And two thirds of people say if they do still handwrite something, it’s usually for their eyes only – mostly hastily scribbled reminders or a quick note.

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Trends in Neuroscience and Education

Karin H. James

The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children


In an age of increasing technology, the possibility that typing on a keyboard will replace handwriting raises questions about the future usefulness of handwriting skills. Here we present evidence that brain activation during letter perception is influenced in different, important ways by previous handwriting of letters versus previous typing or tracing of those same letters.

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The New York Times

What’s lost as handwriting fades

Maria Konnikova


Does handwriting matter? Not very much, according to many educators. The Common Core standards, which have been adopted in most states, call for teaching legible writing, but only in kindergarten and first grade. After that, the emphasis quickly shifts to proficiency on the keyboard. But psychologists and neuroscientists say it is far too soon to declare handwriting a relic of the past. New evidence suggests that the links between handwriting and broader educational development run deep.

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International Journal of Disability, Development and Education

Debra McCarney

Does Poor Handwriting Conceal Literacy Potential in Primary School Children?


Handwriting is a complex skill that, despite increasing use of computers, still plays a vital role in education. It is assumed that children will master letter formation at a relatively early stage in their school life, with handwriting fluency developing steadily until automaticity is attained. The capacity theory of writing suggests that as automaticity develops, the proportion of working memory dedicated to the mechanics of handwriting is reduced, releasing capacity for the planning, composing and editing of content.

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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Paul Gimenez

Neuroimaging correlates of handwriting quality as children learn to read and write


Reading and writing are related but separable processes that are crucial skills to possess in modern society. The neurobiological basis of reading acquisition and development, which critically depends on phonological processing, and to a lesser degree, beginning writing as it relates to letter perception, are increasingly being understood. Yet direct relationships between writing and reading development, in particular, with phonological processing is not well understood. The main goal of the current preliminary study was to examine individual differences in neurofunctional and neuroanatomical patterns associated with handwriting in beginning writers/readers.

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Psychological Science

Pam A. Mueller

The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard - Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking


Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students’ capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing.

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Association for Psychological Science

Take Notes by Hand for Better Long-Term Comprehension


Dust off those Bic ballpoints and college-ruled notebooks — research shows that taking notes by hand is better than taking notes on a laptop for remembering conceptual information over the long term. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Walk into any university lecture hall and you’re likely to see row upon row of students sitting behind glowing laptop screens. Laptops in class have been controversial, due mostly to the many opportunities for distraction that they provide (online shopping, browsing Reddit, or playing solitaire, just to name a few). But few studies have examined how effective laptops are for the students who diligently take notes.

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Schreibmotorik Institut

Auswertung einer bundesweiten Befragung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern in Grund- und weiterführenden Schulen in Kooperation mit dem Deutschen Lehrerverband

Probleme bei der Entwicklung von Handschrift


Vier Fünftel (81 Prozent) der an der Erhebung beteiligten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an weiterführenden Schulen sind der Meinung, die Handschrift ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler habe sich im Schnitt verschlechtert. Sogar 87 Prozent der befragten Grundschullehrerinnen und Grundschullehrer gaben an, dass sich die Kompetenzen, die Schüler als Voraussetzung für die Entwicklung der Handschrift mitbringen, in den vergangenen Jahren verschlechtert haben.

Nach Einschätzung der an der Umfrage beteiligten Lehrkräfte haben die Hälfte der Jungen (51 Prozent) und ein Drittel der Mädchen (31 Prozent) Probleme mit der Handschrift. Ein Großteil der Schülerinnen und Schüler leidet darunter: Mehr als die Hälfte der befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an weiterführenden Schulen beobachten gerade mal bei höchstens 30 Prozent ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler, dass diese 30 Minuten oder länger beschwerdefrei schreiben können.

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Advances in Cognitive Psychology

Marcus Mueller et. al.

Handwriting or Typewriting? The Influence of Pen- or Keyboard-Based Writing Training on Reading and Writing Performance in Preschool Children


Digital writing devices associated with the use of computers, tablet PCs, or mobile phones are increasingly replacing writing by hand. It is, however, controversially discussed how writing modes influence reading and writing performance in children at the start of literacy. On the one hand, the easiness of typing on digital devices may accelerate reading and writing in young children, who have less developed sensory-motor skills. On the other hand, the meaningful coupling between action and perception during handwriting, which establishes sensory-motor memory traces, could facilitate written language acquisition. In order to decide between these theoretical alternatives, for the present study, we developed an intense training program for preschool children attending the German kindergarten with 16 training sessions. Using closely matched letter learning games, eight letters of the German alphabet were trained either by handwriting with a pen on a sheet of paper or by typing on a computer keyboard. Letter recognition, naming, and writing performance as well as word reading and writing performance were assessed. Results did not indicate a superiority of typing training over handwriting training in any of these tasks. In contrast, handwriting training was superior to typing training in word writing, and, as a tendency, in word reading. The results of our study, therefore, support theories of action-perception coupling assuming a facilitatory influence of sensory-motor representations established during handwriting on reading and writing.

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ELT journal

Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund

Handwriting as a tool for learning in ELT


This article discusses the role that handwriting can have when writing is used as a tool for learning in English language education. Nineteen Norwegian EFL teacher training students were interviewed in focus groups about their own practices and their thoughts about writing-to-learn activities. All the students said that they prefer to write by hand. They claimed that writing by hand is fundamentally different from writing on a keyboard, and that handwriting has much greater impact as a tool for learning. However, the students had not given much thought to the didactic implications of their own preferences, and issues related to the different technologies of writing are not dealt with in their own studies. The investigation suggests that more attention should be paid to the affordances of different technologies of writing and to handwriting as a tool for learning in ELT.

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Audrey van der Meer & F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel

Only Three Fingers Write, But The Whole Brain Works1 : Is the pen mightier than the word?


Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were writing or describing visually presented PictionaryTM words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing the same words using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. Our results showed that in the drawing condition, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed Event Related Desynchronizing (ERD) activity in the theta/alpha range. These findings are consistent with existing literature and are often reported to provide an optimal background for learning. In the describe condition, beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal regions could be observed, especially during the early stage of cognitive processing. Such activity is often associated with the involvement of higher cognitive, top-down processes and the creation of ideas. (...)

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